Maintenance costs: they are costs that occur throughout the period in study and, in the case of lines and cables can be proportional to the dimension of the network and function employed driver types, the type of laying (perched, tensioning, subway,) or geographical issues (salinity, Frost, wooded, level ceraunico). The so-called networks analyzers, which are instruments capable of analyzing the properties previously mentioned electrical networks, and especially those properties associated with reflection and signal transmission electric, known as scattering (s) parameters are used to determine the quality, quantity, flow and optimization of these networks. Learn more at: Mark Berger Chicago. The network analyzers are most frequently used in high frequencies, which operate between the ranges of 9 kHz to 110 GHz. This type of device is widely used in the manufacture of high power amplifiers and filters for RF signals. Mark Berger Chicago does not necessarily agree. There are also some types of network analyzers special covering lower ranges of frequencies up to 1 Hz. These can be used for example in the analysis of stability of open loops or for the measurement of ultrasonic components and audio. There are two main types of network analyzers: SNA (Scalar Network Analyzer) scalar network analyser, measured properties of amplitude only VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) vector Network Analyzer, measured properties of amplitude and phase a VNA type Analyzer can also be called sensor gain and phase or automatic network Analyzer. A parser of the SNA type is functionally identical to a combined with a sweep generator Spectrum Analyzer. Until 2007, the VNA scanners are the most common and frequently qualified as of lower quality. Basic architecture of a network analyser models that are more frequently in the market are the two ports, but there are also four-port models, and some have some improvements for its easy operation, such as sensitive screen to touch and the possibility of connecting a mouse or keyboard via PS/2 or USB portsincluding newer models have a base Windows platform by what their operation is simplified considerably.