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Vocational Bureau

The scientific and social division of labour, its mechanization, the diversification of labor, new professions, the rural exodus, the social inequalities caused by differential access to the labour market, creating a climate of uncertainty and disorientation before incorporation into the labour market. With the advent of the industrial revolution vocational guidance begins to respond to the new working class and to connect the school with the world of work, within the framework of the movements the compensation of social inequalities and human rights defenders. To develop the industry, the frequency of occupational accidents and the inadequate job performance moves Munsterberg and Taylor became interested by the human factor and the problem of the choice of each person depending on the type of activity that you want to develop. Although it is difficult to identify the exact time of the birth of vocational guidance the majority of authors have placed it in 1908, when the engineer Frank Parsons, linked to the progressive movement in education, he founded the first Center of orientation the Vocational Bureau in Boston, dependent on a centre of social services, Civic Service-House, and publishes his work Choosing a Vocation, which is the essence of the approach of characteristics and factors in 1909. In these early vocational guidance takes place outside the educational framework regulated, in North American context and without the support of psychologists, sociologists and educators. In this regard, it is important to point out that it is going to be incipient differential psychology and psychometrics disciplines that vocational guidance service, put the bases for personal needs analysis and the creation of simple models of selection and orientation with a predictive value. From the Decade of the fifties, begins the interest by contrast and the adequacy of the concept of himself with the occupational realities, giving entry to occupational sociology, economy and an evolutionary approach in the individual dynamics.

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